The study seeks to identify the rights of the prisoner in the Saudi system, given that the prisoner has rights and duties. The study dealt with the rights of the prisoner in the relevant international conventions, in addition to the rights of the prisoner in Islam and the Arab Charter on Human Rights (ACHR). The study also dealt with the initiatives offered by the Saudi prison administrations which contribute to the reduction of the term of imprisonment in specific conditions. In addition to the role played by prisons in the Kingdom and the extent to which the naming of the prison system is compatible with the rehabilitation role it offers. The study adopted the descriptive analytical methodology as one of the most widely used in the study of legal, social, and humanitarian phenomena within prisons in Saudi Arabia, given its realism in dealing with the problem of research. The descriptive method also helps in making comparisons between the nature of social phenomena in more than one place, as well as the analytical legal methodology that tracks the constitutional and legal conditions in Saudi Arabia and analyses texts on the subject of the study and the texts of some conventions. The study reached a set of results and recommendations, stressing that the Saudi prison administration grants prisoners rights in accordance with Islamic Sharia and international human rights instruments. The study recommended that it was necessary to abide by sharia and law, and also indicated the reflection of this matter and its importance to make an amendment in the relevant regulations regarding the designation of the prison system as the reform and rehabilitation center system. It is called this because of the role it actually plays in terms of discipline, reform, and education so that the prisoner becomes a good member and can return to society.