In the current market economy and international economic integration, the issue of occupational safety and hygiene is increasingly closely related to the development of each enterprise. Building a safe production with quality and competitive products associated with workers' health is one of the indispensable requirements of sustainable development in economic globalization. The Vietnamese legal regulations on occupational safety and health system are gradually perfected to ensure the legitimate rights and interests of employees and concretize the international commitments of the ILO. Vietnam is a member of this international organization, clearly defining enterprises' responsibilities and rights in ensuring occupational safety and health for employees in labor relations. From there, it contributes significantly to preventing and reducing occupational accidents and diseases, increasing labor productivity, and promoting economic growth, political stability, and social security. In this article, we contribute an essential topic on ensuring enterprises' occupational safety and hygiene. First, we analyze the contents of the current regulations of Vietnamese law on ensuring enterprises' occupational safety and health, thereby drawing out the advantages and disadvantages of this. Secondly, we analyze and evaluate the practical implementation of the law on occupational safety and hygiene of enterprises in Vietnam in the past, which has caused several problems and caused analysis. Third, we offer solutions and recommendations to improve the law and the effectiveness of the application of the law in ensuring the occupational safety and health of enterprises in Vietnam in the coming period.