Geopolitical Dimension of Exclave Crises in Europe (The Kaliningrad Exclave as A Modal)

Assist. Prof. Dr. Zaid A. H. Al-khafaji
Keywords: Kaliningrad, Russia, Exclave, Crises ,


The Kaliningrad Territory, of which the Russian Federation is part, is a specific region located in Central and Eastern Europe. It is geographically separated from the body of Russia. The region can be understood as a zone of cooperation and conflict between Russia and the West. The Kaliningrad region is considered as a spearhead in Central and Eastern Europe because it directly overlooks the Baltic Sea, as it constitutes a direct contact point for the Russian Federation in light of the geopolitical conditions for security in the Baltic Sea region. Hence, Russia considers Kaliningrad State a crucial region for the security of the Baltic Sea region and an indispensable base no matter what it costs. It represents a challenge for the Baltic region and European unity on the one hand, and an urgent necessity for the Russian geopolitical dimension in the region on the other.

The geographical location is not only the main reason, but the region constitutes a field for a future extension that is drawn by the Russian Federation, especially since in its geopolitical plans, which implement a project to reintegrate the post-Soviet region and Kaliningrad, as the region is one of the main elements for the success of this project. The Kaliningrad Oblast will play a role as a special tool for the Russian authorities to threaten the states of the Baltic Sea region, as do other separatist regions in the post-Soviet space. It is likely that the importance of the Kaliningrad Oblast for the security of the Baltic Sea region will increase in the future with the increase in the process of integration in the post-Soviet region. This is what Russia’s foreign policy seeks with regard to the Baltic states as well as the countries of northern Europe, especially since Russia has succeeded in diverting European and NATO attention from this project for a long period of time to implement it quietly, especially after it has gained global weight.